These forms of paralysis often result from direct traumatic injuries, knife wounds, bullet wounds but they can also be caused by severe clavicle fractures or shoulder dislocations. Due to the specificity of these forms of palsy, the term used is mosaical palsy.
Open injuries (wounds) require immediate exploration and repair.
Closed injuries (fracture, dislocation) require bone stabilization (reduction of dislocation or fracture) and close paralysis monitoring. If recovery does not begin within 5 months of the injury, surgery must be proposed.
For persistent recent forms of palsy that are less than a year old, explorative release and repair surgery must be performed.
For infraclavicular palsy over one year, only musculotendinous transfer or arthrodesis (joint fusion) surgery can be considered.